Associated Press

The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the individual mandate of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with a 5-4 decision, saying the individual mandate was the equivalent of a tax and it was not its role to strike down imposition of a tax. That means that individuals will be required to buy health insurance or face financial penalties. The majority held that the law's Medicaid expansion is constitutional, but said only the expansion money could be withheld from states that did not want to participate; the federal government could not withhold other Medicaid funding. Read reporter Lois M. Collins' full story about the health care ruling here.

Antonin Scalia
Associated Press

Ideological leaning: Conservative
Home State: New York
Born: 1936
Appointed: 1986 by Ronald Reagan
Individual Mandate decision: Against

Why he voted against it (from the dissenting opinion)

"Congress could have defined “tax” for purposes of that statute (the minimum coverage provision) in such fashion as to exclude some exactions that in fact are “taxes.” It might have prescribed, for example, that a particular exercise of the taxing power “shall not be regarded as a tax for purposes of the Anti-Injunction Act.” But there is no such prescription here. What the Government would have us believe in these cases is that the very same textual indications that show this is not a tax under the Anti-Injunction Act show that it is a tax under the Constitution. That carries verbal wizardry too far, deep into the forbidden land of the sophists."

* Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia speaks at the University of Baltimore School of Law Thursday, April 24, 2008, in Baltimore.

Anthony Kennedy
Associated Press

Ideological leaning: Conservative
Home State: California
Born: 1936
Appointed: 1988 by Ronald Reagan
Individual Mandate decision: Against

* Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy testifies before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Financial Services and General Government regarding the Supreme Court's 2008 fiscal budget request on Capitol Hill in Washington Thursday, March 8, 2007.

Clarence Thomas
Associated Press

Ideological leaning: Conservative
Home State: Georgia
Born: 1948
Appointed: 1991 by George H.W. Bush
Individual Mandate decision: Against

Why he voted against it (from his supplemental dissent)

"I dissent for the reasons stated in our joint opinion, but I write separately to say a word about the Commerce Clause. The joint dissent and THE CHIEF JUSTICE correctly apply our precedents to conclude that the Individual Mandate is beyond the power granted to Congress. I adhere to my view that “the very notion of a ‘substantial effects’ test under the Commerce Clause is inconsistent with the original understanding of Congress’ powers and with this Court’s early Commerce Clause cases.” As I have explained, the Court’s continued use of that test “has encouraged the Federal Government to persist in its view that the Commerce Clause has virtually no limits.” The Government’s unprecedented claim in this suit that it may regulate not only economic activity but also inactivity that substantially affects interstate commerce is a case in point. "

* Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, left, and Justice Anthony Kennedy, right, testify before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Financial Services and General Government regarding the Supreme Court's 2008 fiscal budget request on Capitol Hill in Washington Thursday, March 8, 2007.

Ruth Bader Ginsberg
Associated Press

Ideological leaning: Liberal
Home State: New York
Born: 1933
Appointed: 1993 by Bill Clinton
Individual Mandate decision: For

Why she voted for it, but doesn't necessarily agree with the Chief Justice (from her concurrence)

"The Commerce Clause authorizes Congress to enact the minimum coverage provision. I would also hold that the Spending Clause permits the Medicaid expansion exactly as Congress enacted it."

"Unlike THE CHIEF JUSTICE, however, I would hold, alternatively, that the Commerce Clause authorizes Congress to enact the minimum coverage provision. I would also hold that the Spending Clause permits the Medicaid expansion exactly as Congress enacted it."

* In this Jan. 26, 2007 file photo, Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg addresses an audience at the Suffolk University Law School.

Stephen Breyer
Associated Press

Ideological leaning: Liberal
Home State: Massachusetts
Born: 1938
Appointed: 1984 by Bill Clinton
Individual Mandate decision: For

* In this photo released by The New Yorker magazine, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer participates in a discussion at the New Yorker Festival, Saturday, Oct. 7, 2006, in New York.

John G. Roberts, Chief Justice
Associated Press

Ideological leaning: Conservative
Home State: Indiana/New York
Born: 1955
Appointed: 2005 by George W. Bush
Individual mandate decision: For

Why he voted for it (from the court opinion)

"Construing the Commerce Clause to permit Congress to regulate individuals precisely because they are doing nothing would open a new and potentially vast domain to congressional authority. Congress already possesses expansive power to regulate what people do. Upholding the Affordable Care Act under the Commerce Clause would give Congress the same license to regulate what people do not do. The Framers knew the difference between doing something and doing nothing. They gave Congress the power to regulate commerce, not to compel it. Ignoring that distinction would undermine the principle that the Federal Government is a government of limited and enumerated powers. The individual mandate thus cannot be sustained under Congress’s power to “regulate Commerce."

* John G. Roberts Jr., center, the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, listens to the president of the Constitutional Council, Jean-Louis Debre, unseen, as they meet in Paris, Monday, July 16, 2007.

Samuel Alito
Associated Press

Ideological leaning: Conservative
Home State: New Jersey
Born: 1950
Appointed: 2006 by George W. Bush
Individual mandate decision: Against

* U.S. Supreme Court Justice Samuel Alito speaks about constitutional law during a lecture at Drake University, Thursday, Sept. 30, 2010, in Des Moines, Iowa.

Sonia Sotomayor
Associated Press

Ideological leaning: Liberal
Home State: New York
Born: 1954
Appointed: 2009 by Barack Obama
Individual mandate decision: For

* Supreme Court Associate Justice Sonia Sotomayor is introduced to speak at the University of the District of Columbia's David Clarke School of Law "Joseph Rauh, Jr., Conversation" in Washington, Monday, April 2, 2012.

Elena Kagan
Associated Press

Ideological leaning: Liberal
Home State: New York
Born: 1960
Appointed: 2010 by Barack Obama
Individual mandate decision: For

* In this Aug. 7, 2010 file photo, Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan smiles after becoming the court's newest member, at the Supreme Court in Washington.